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Sunday, 17 March 2024 14:53

An Evaluation of the Influence of Surface Hardness on Phosphate-Bonded Investment Hardening by Dental Waxes Featured

1Ihab Nafea Yaseen MSc, 2Najwah Yousuf Hameed MSc, and 3Maha Kareem Jabbar MSc.
1, 2, 3Department of Prosthetic Dental Techniques, College of Health and Medical Techniques,
Middle Technical University Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Corresponding author: Najwah Yousuf Hameed
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Received 27 May, 2023.
Accepted for publication on August 27, 2023.
Published March 14, 2024.

Background An investment can be defined as a ceramic material that is appropriate to form a mold into which an alloy or a metal is cast. The mold-forming operation can be described as an investment, which means a process of covering or surrounding material, such as a denture, wax form, crown, or other objects. The phosphate-bonded investment results in a brittle-cast model with the surface of a pore. The hardening agents of the dental surface are then used in materials of refractory investment to improve their properties. The problem of Statements: The phosphate-bonded investment results in a brittle-cast model with the surface of a pore. Objectives was to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of various hardening agents (Bee wax, paraffin wax, and soy wax) on surface hardness. Materials and Methods 28 specimens were created using «phosphate-bonded investment» materials. Each group had seven samples: group A (control without immersion), group B (immersion in soy wax), group C (immersion in paraffin wax), and group D (immersion in beeswax). After being immersed in wax, the hardness value of each specimen was determined. Results The results indicated that after immersion in various waxes, the surface hardness value increased for all specimens. Conclusion The immersion technique with a hardening agent considerably enhanced the surface hardness of the refractory investment materials.

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